, Volume 402, Issue 10, pp 3275-3286
Date: 08 Dec 2011

A review of recent developments in the speciation and location of arsenic and selenium in rice grain

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Abstract

Rice is a staple food yet is a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic, a class 1, nonthreshold carcinogen. Establishing the location and speciation of arsenic within the edible rice grain is essential for understanding the risk and for developing effective strategies to reduce grain arsenic concentrations. Conversely, selenium is an essential micronutrient and up to 1 billion people worldwide are selenium-deficient. Several studies have suggested that selenium supplementation can reduce the risk of some cancers, generating substantial interest in biofortifying rice. Knowledge of selenium location and speciation is important, because the anti-cancer effects of selenium depend on its speciation. Germanic acid is an arsenite/silicic acid analogue, and location of germanium may help elucidate the mechanisms of arsenite transport into grain. This review summarises recent discoveries in the location and speciation of arsenic, germanium, and selenium in rice grain using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and synchrotron techniques, and illustrates both the importance of high-sensitivity and high-resolution techniques and the advantages of combining techniques in an integrated quantitative and spatial approach.

Figure 1

Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence microtomography images for a virtual cross section of a husked immature rice grain pulsed with 133 μM germanic acid through the excised panicle stem

Published in the special paper collection Elemental Imaging and Speciation in Plant Science with guest editors J. Feldmann and E. Krupp.
An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-012-5786-0.