Formation of pyranoanthocyanins in red wines: a new and diverse class of anthocyanin derivatives
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- de Freitas, V. & Mateus, N. Anal Bioanal Chem (2011) 401: 1463. doi:10.1007/s00216-010-4479-9
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Pyranoanthocyanins constitute one of the most important classes of anthocyanin-derived pigments occurring naturally in red wine. Nonetheless, correct assignment of their structures and pathways of formation in red wine has been relatively recent—less than two decades. Study of these newly discovered pigments is progressively unfolding the chemical pathways that drive the evolution of red wine colour during ageing. The objective of this paper is to review current knowledge regarding the pathway of formation in red wine of a great variety of pyranoanthocyanin structures, namely carboxypyranoanthocyanins, methylpyranoanthocyanins, pyranoanthocyanin-flavanols, pyranoanthocyanin-phenols, portisins, oxovitisins, and pyranoanthocyanin dimers. The chromatic features of some of the compounds, for example their colour expression and acid–base equilibria in aqueous media, are also discussed.