Original Paper

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 399, Issue 2, pp 823-830

First online:

Shotgun lipidomics for candidate biomarkers of urinary phospholipids in prostate cancer

  • Hye Kyeong MinAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, Yonsei University
  • , Sangsoo LimAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, Yonsei University
  • , Bong Chul ChungAffiliated withLife Sciences Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST)
  • , Myeong Hee MoonAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, Yonsei University Email author 

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Qualitative and quantitative profiling of six different categories of urinary phospholipids (PLs) from patients with prostate cancer was performed to develop an analytical method for the discovery of candidate biomarkers by shotgun lipidomics method. Using nanoflow liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry, we identified the molecular structures of a total of 70 PL molecules (21 phosphatidylcholines (PCs), 11 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), 17 phosphatidylserines (PSs), 11 phosphatidylinositols (PIs), seven phosphatidic acids, and three phosphatidylglycerols) from urine samples of healthy controls and prostate cancer patients by data-dependent collision-induced dissociation. Identified molecules were quantitatively examined by comparing the MS peak areas. From statistical analyses, one PC, one PE, six PSs, and two PIs among the PL species showed significant differences between controls and cancer patients (p < 0.05, Student’s t test), with concentration changes of more than threefold. Cluster analysis of both control and patient groups showed that 18:0/18:1-PS and 16:0/22:6-PS were 99% similar in upregulation and that the two PSs (18:1/18:0, 18:0/20:5) with two PIs (18:0/18:1 and 16:1/20:2) showed similar (>95%) downregulation. The total amount of each PL group was compared among prostate cancer patients according to the Gleason scale as larger or smaller than 6. It proposes that the current study can be utilized to sort out possible diagnostic biomarkers of prostate cancer.


Dendrogram of urinary phospholipids from prostate cancer


Phospholipids Quantitative analysis nLC–ESI–MS/MS Urine Prostate cancer Biomarker