Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 399, Issue 1, pp 403–419

An implantable biochip to influence patient outcomes following trauma-induced hemorrhage

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-010-4271-x

Cite this article as:
Guiseppi-Elie, A. Anal Bioanal Chem (2011) 399: 403. doi:10.1007/s00216-010-4271-x


Following hemorrhage-causing injury, lactate levels rise and correlate with the severity of injury and are a surrogate of oxygen debt. Posttraumatic injury also includes hyperglycemia, with continuously elevated glucose levels leading to extensive tissue damage, septicemia, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. A temporary, implantable, integrated glucose and lactate biosensor and communications biochip for physiological status monitoring during hemorrhage and for intensive care unit stays has been developed. The dual responsive, amperometric biotransducer uses the microdisc electrode array format upon which were separately immobilized glucose oxidase and lactate oxidase within biorecognition layers, 1.0–5.0 μm thick, of 3 mol% tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate cross-linked p(HEMA-co-PEGMA-co-HMMA-co-SPA)-p(Py-co-PyBA) electroconductive hydrogels. The device was then coated with a bioactive hydrogel layer containing phosphoryl choline and polyethylene glycol pendant moieties [p(HEMA-co-PEGMA-co-HMMA-co-MPC)] for indwelling biocompatibility. In vitro cell proliferation and viability studies confirmed both polymers to be non-cytotoxic; however, PPy-based electroconductive hydrogels showed greater RMS 13 and PC12 proliferation compared to controls. The glucose and lactate biotransducers exhibited linear dynamic ranges of 0.10–13.0 mM glucose and 1.0–7.0 mM and response times (t95) of 50 and 35–40 s, respectively. Operational stability gave 80% of the initial biosensor response after 5 days of continuous operation at 37 °C. Preliminary in vivo studies in a Sprague–Dawley hemorrhage model showed tissue lactate levels to rise more rapidly than systematic lactate. The potential for an implantable biochip that supports telemetric reporting of intramuscular lactate and glucose levels allows the refinement of resuscitation approaches for civilian and combat trauma victims.


Schematic of an electrode-supported, two-layer hydrogel membrane for bioreceptor hosting and tissue biocompatibility


Biosensors Biochips Biointerfaces Electroconductive hydrogels Trauma Hemorrhage 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Bioelectronics, Biosensors and Biochips (C3B)Clemson University Advanced Materials CenterAndersonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringClemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  3. 3.Department of BioengineeringClemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringClemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  5. 5.ABTECH Scientific, Inc.RichmondUSA

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