Influence of DNA extraction methods, PCR inhibitors and quantification methods on real-time PCR assay of biotechnology-derived traits
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- Demeke, T. & Jenkins, G.R. Anal Bioanal Chem (2010) 396: 1977. doi:10.1007/s00216-009-3150-9
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Biotechnology-derived varieties of canola, cotton, corn and soybean are being grown in the USA, Canada and other predominantly grain exporting countries. Although the amount of farmland devoted to production of biotechnology-derived crops continues to increase, lingering concerns that unintended consequences may occur provide the EU and most grain-importing countries with justification to regulate these crops. Legislation in the EU requires traceability of grains/oilseeds, food and feed products, and labelling, when a threshold level of 0.9% w/w of genetically engineered trait is demonstrated to be present in an analytical sample. The GE content is routinely determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and plant genomic DNA provides the template for the initial steps in this process. A plethora of DNA extraction methods exist for qPCR applications. Implementing standardized methods for detection of genetically engineered traits is necessary to facilitate grain marketing. The International Organization for Standardization draft standard 21571 identifies detergent-based methods and commercially available kits that are widely used for DNA extraction, but also indicates that adaptations may be necessary depending upon the sample matrix. This review assesses advantages and disadvantages of various commercially available DNA extraction kits, as well as modifications to published cetyltrimethylammonium bromide methods. Inhibitors are a major obstacle for efficient amplification in qPCR. The types of PCR inhibitors and techniques to minimize inhibition are discussed. Finally, accurate quantification of DNA for applications in qPCR is not trivial. Many confounders contribute to differences in analytical measurements when a particular DNA quantification method is applied and different methods do not always provide concordant results on the same DNA sample. How these differences impact measurement uncertainty in qPCR is considered.