Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 393, Issue 8, pp 1871–1877

Quasi in situ XPS investigations on intercalation mechanisms in Li-ion battery materials

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-008-2520-z

Cite this article as:
Oswald, S., Nikolowski, K. & Ehrenberg, H. Anal Bioanal Chem (2009) 393: 1871. doi:10.1007/s00216-008-2520-z


New concepts for Li-ion batteries are of growing interest for high-performance applications. One aim is the search for new electrode materials with superior properties and their detailed characterization. We demonstrate the application of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate electrode materials (LiCoO2, LiCrMnO4) during electrochemical cycling. The optimization of a “quasi in situ” analysis, by transferring the samples with a transport chamber from the glove box to the XPS chamber, and the reliability of the experiments performed are shown. The behavior of characteristic chemical species at the electrodes and the changes in oxidation states of LiCrMnO4 during cycling is discussed. The formation of Cr6+ is suspected as a possible reason for irreversible capacity loss during charging up to complete Li deintercalation (approximately 5.2 V).


Scheme of a quasi in situ XPS experiment on Li-ion battery electrode material


X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Interface/surface analysis Ion chromatography/ion exchange Li-ion batteries 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IFW DresdenDresdenGermany

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