Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles: syntheses, optical properties, and biological applications
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- Biju, V., Itoh, T., Anas, A. et al. Anal Bioanal Chem (2008) 391: 2469. doi:10.1007/s00216-008-2185-7
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We review the syntheses, optical properties, and biological applications of cadmium selenide (CdSe) and cadmium selenide–zinc sulfide (CdSe–ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) and gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we selected the syntheses of QDs and Au and Ag NPs in aqueous and organic phases, size- and shape-dependent photoluminescence (PL) of QDs and plasmon of metal NPs, and their bioimaging applications. The PL properties of QDs are discussed with reference to their band gap structure and various electronic transitions, relations of PL and photoactivated PL with surface defects, and blinking of single QDs. Optical properties of Ag and Au NPs are discussed with reference to their size- and shape-dependent surface plasmon bands, electron dynamics and relaxation, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The bioimaging applications are discussed with reference to in vitro and in vivo imaging of live cells, and in vivo imaging of cancers, tumor vasculature, and lymph nodes. Other aspects of the review are in vivo deep tissue imaging, multiphoton excitation, NIR fluorescence and SERS imaging, and toxic effects of NPs and their clearance from the body.