, Volume 391, Issue 3, pp 799-805
Date: 20 Apr 2008

Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in hospital and municipal wastewaters in Coimbra by liquid chromatography with a monolithic column and fluorescence detection

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Abstract

The main goal of this work was determination of residues of the antibiotics ofloxacin (OFLO), norfloxacin (NOR), ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), and enrofloxacin (ENRO) in wastewater samples. The samples, after acidification to pH 4.5 and addition of EDTA, were extracted on an anion-exchange cartridge in tandem with an Oasis HLB cartridge. The LC–FD method, developed in previous studies, was based on application of a monolithic C18 column. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 250 ng L−1 for OFLO, 25 ng L−1 for NOR and CIPRO, and 50 ng L−1 for ENRO. Mean recovery ranged between 75 and 121% for OFLO, NOR, CIPRO, and ENRO. A total of 14 wastewater samples were analyzed; these were collected from four hospitals and from influent and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in Coimbra, Portugal, during spring and autumn. CIPRO was present in all the samples, NOR was detected second most often, followed by OFLO. ENRO was found at concentrations under the LOQ in five hospital samples, and the highest level was found in influent from the WWTP.