Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 390, Issue 8, pp 1975–1985

The risk of altering soil and sediment samples upon extract preparation for analytical and bio-analytical investigations—a review

Authors

    • Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5)RWTH Aachen University
  • Tobias Schulze
    • Department of Effect-Directed AnalysisUFZ Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research
  • Henner Hollert
    • Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5)RWTH Aachen University
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-008-1933-z

Cite this article as:
Seiler, T., Schulze, T. & Hollert, H. Anal Bioanal Chem (2008) 390: 1975. doi:10.1007/s00216-008-1933-z

Abstract

Organic total extracts play an important role in soil and sediment risk assessment. Beside a routine application in analytical chemistry, they are used in bio-analytical investigations as a “worst-case scenario” or, e.g., in order to simulate chronic intoxication, and as samples for effect-directed analysis. While theoretically providing highly reliable data and good reproducibility, the whole process of sample handling and extract preparation can lead to extracts that might fail to accurately represent a toxic potential of their corresponding sampling site. This review identifies and discusses the most important possible alterations that have the potential to lead to over and, more often, underestimation of the effectiveness of extracts. Since incorrect data will compromise soil and sediment risk assessment as a whole, results from analytical and bio-analytical investigations of extracts demand cautious interpretation. Reliability of extract testing grows with reproducibility; experiments should therefore be repeated with independent extraction replicates. New or optimized extraction procedures should circumvent the issues mentioned here while being suitable for routine application.

Keywords

SoilSedimentExtractionRisk of alterationBioassaysSample treatment

Abbreviations

POM

particulate organic matter

DOM

dissolved organic matter

AOC

amorphous organic carbon

CGC

carbonaceous organic carbon

EDA

effect-directed analysis

TIE

toxicity identification evaluation

PLE

pressurized liquid extraction

GPC

gel-permeation chromatography

DMSO

dimethyl sulfoxide

MDE

membrane dialysis extraction

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008