, Volume 389, Issue 4, pp 1193-1199

Detection of avian influenza virus using an interferometric biosensor

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An interferometric biosensor immunoassay for direct and label-less detection of avian influenza through whole virus capture on a planar optical waveguide is described. The assay response is based on index of refraction changes that occur upon binding of virus particles to unique antigen-specific (hemagglutinin) antibodies on the waveguide surface. Three virus subtypes (two H7 and one H8) in buffer solution were tested using both monoclonal and polyclonal capture antibodies. The real-time response of the antigen–antibody interaction was measured and was shown to be concentration-dependent, with detection limits as low as 0.0005 hemagglutination units per milliliter. A simple sandwich assay was shown to further increase the biosensor response.


Response of the optical interferometric biosensor (inset) to avian influenza virus using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) for whole virus capture in a direct binding assay. The response of the anti-H7 mAb is specific to the H7 subtype