Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 388, Issue 7, pp 1415–1435

Bioanalytical procedures for determination of drugs of abuse in blood

Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-007-1271-6

Cite this article as:
Kraemer, T. & Paul, L.D. Anal Bioanal Chem (2007) 388: 1415. doi:10.1007/s00216-007-1271-6

Abstract

Determination of drugs of abuse in blood is of great importance in clinical and forensic toxicology. This review describes procedures for detection of the following drugs of abuse and their metabolites in whole blood, plasma or serum: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol glucuronide, heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, codeine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, cocaethylene, other cocaine metabolites or pyrolysis products (norcocaine, norcocaethylene, norbenzoylecgonine, m-hydroxycocaine, p-hydroxycocaine, m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, p-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, ethyl ecgonine, ecgonine, anhydroecgonine methyl ester, anhydroecgonine ethyl ester, anhydroecgonine, noranhydroecgonine, N-hydroxynorcocaine, cocaine N-oxide, anhydroecgonine methyl ester N-oxide). Metabolites and degradation products which are recommended to be monitored for assessment in clinical or forensic toxicology are mentioned. Papers written in English between 2002 and the beginning of 2007 are reviewed. Analytical methods are assessed for their suitability in forensic toxicology, where special requirements have to be met. For many of the analytes sensitive immunological methods for screening are available. Screening and confirmation is mostly done by gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (MS) or liquid chromatography (LC)–MS(/MS) procedures. Basic information about the biosample assayed, internal standard, workup, GC or LC column and mobile phase, detection mode, and validation data for each procedure is summarized in two tables to facilitate the selection of a method suitable for a specific analytic problem.

Keywords

Drugs of abuseGas chromatography–mass spectrometryLiquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometryBloodDeterminationForensic toxicology

Abbreviations

AEME

anhydroecgonine methyl ester

APCI

atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

BZE

benzoylecgonine

CI

chemical ionization

CYP

cytochrome P-450

CZE

capillary zone electrophoresis

DAD

diode array detection

EI

electron ionization

EME

ecgonine methyl ester

ESI

electrospray ionization

GC

gas chromatography

HFBA

heptafluorobutyric anhydride

(S)-HFBPCl

(S)-(-)-heptafluorobutyrylprolyl chloride

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

LC

liquid chromatography

LIF

laser-induced fluorescence

LLE

liquid–liquid extraction

LOQ

limit of quantification

LOD

limit of detection

6-MAM

6-monoacetylmorphine

MDA

3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine

MDEA

N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine

MDMA

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

M3G

morphine-3-glucuronide

M6G

morphine-6-glucuronide

MRM

multiple reaction monitoring

MS

mass spectrometry

MS/MS

tandem mass spectrometry

(R)-(-)-MTPCl

(R)-(-)-α-methoxy-α-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride

NICI

negative ion chemical ionization

OH-THC

11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

PICI

positive ion chemical ionization

SIM

selected ion monitoring

SPE

solid-phase extraction

THC

Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

THC-COOgluc

11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol glucuronide

THC-COOH

11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

UPLC

ultraperformance liquid chromatography

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Legal MedicineSaarland UniversityHomburg (Saar)Germany
  2. 2.Institute of Legal MedicineLudwig Maximilians UniversityMunichGermany