, Volume 388, Issue 3, pp 545-563
Date: 13 Mar 2007

Recent progress in analytical instrumentation for glycemic control in diabetic and critically ill patients

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Abstract

Implementing strict glycemic control can reduce the risk of serious complications in both diabetic and critically ill patients. For this reason, many different analytical, mainly electrochemical and optical sensor approaches for glucose measurements have been developed. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been recognised as being an indispensable tool for intensive diabetes therapy. Recent progress in analytical instrumentation, allowing submicroliter samples of blood, alternative site testing, reduced test time, autocalibration, and improved precision, is comprehensively described in this review. Continuous blood glucose monitoring techniques and insulin infusion strategies, developmental steps towards the realization of the dream of an artificial pancreas under closed loop control, are presented. Progress in glucose sensing and glycemic control for both patient groups is discussed by assessing recent published literature (up to 2006). The state-of-the-art and trends in analytical techniques (either episodic, intermittent or continuous, minimal-invasive, or noninvasive) detailed in this review will provide researchers, health professionals and the diabetic community with a comprehensive overview of the potential of next-generation instrumentation suited to either short- and long-term implantation or ex vivo measurement in combination with appropriate body interfaces such as microdialysis catheters.