Original Paper

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 387, Issue 5, pp 1815-1822

Clinical chemistry without reagents? An infrared spectroscopic technique for determination of clinically relevant constituents of body fluids

  • Gamze HoşafçıAffiliated withInstitute of Biophysics, University of Frankfurt
  • , Oliver KleinAffiliated withInstitute of Biophysics, University of Frankfurt Email author 
  • , Gerhard OremekAffiliated withCenter of Internal Medicine, Research Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt
  • , Werner MänteleAffiliated withInstitute of Biophysics, University of Frankfurt

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A spectroscopic method based on attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has been developed for reagent-free analysis of blood and urine constituents in the clinical laboratory and for point-of-care-applications. Blood plasma, whole blood, and urine were analyzed without any sample preparation, such as drying, concentration, or enrichment. Sample volumes as small as 5 μL (a single drop of blood) can be used. Mathematical models, including partial least-squares regression, were used to construct a prediction model which can calculate the concentration of albumin, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, urea, and triglycerides in whole blood or blood plasma samples and the concentration of urea, uric acid, phosphate and creatinine in urine samples. The absolute precision and reproducibility of the prediction reached is sufficient for routine clinical analysis and is only limited by the precision of the reference analysis used for calibration. This was achieved by use of a large number of calibration samples (approx. 400 for blood samples and approx. 100 for urine samples) carefully selected for physiological and pathological range and for specific disease profiles.


Blood analysis Urine analysis Body fluids Attenuated total reflection (ATR) Infrared spectroscopy