A new method has been established for simultaneous determination of 405 pesticide residues in grain, using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), and GC-MS and LC-MS-MS. The method was based on appraisal of the GC-MS and LC-MS-MS characteristics of 660 pesticides, their efficiency of extraction from grain, and their purification. Samples of grain (10 g) were mixed with Celite 545 (10 g) and the mixture was placed in a 34-mL cell of an accelerated solvent extractor and extracted with acetonitrile in the static state for 3 min with two cycles at 1,500 psig and at 80°C. For the 362 pesticides determined by GC-MS, half of the extracts were cleaned with an Envi-18 cartridge and then further cleaned with Envi-Carb and Sep-Pak NH2 cartridges in series. The pesticides were eluted with acetonitrile-toluene, 3:1, and the eluates were concentrated and used for analysis after being exchanged with hexane twice. For the 43 pesticides determined by LC-MS-MS the other half of the extracts were cleaned with Sep-Pak Alumina N cartridge and further cleaned with Envi-Carb and Sep-Pak NH2 cartridges. Pesticides were eluted with acetonitrile-toluene, 3:1. After evaporation to dryness the eluates were diluted with acetonitrile-water, 3:2, and used for analysis. In the linear range of each pesticide the linear correlation coefficient r was equal to or greater than 0.956 and 94% of linear correlation coefficients were greater than 0.990. At low, medium, and high fortification levels, at the limit of detection (LOD), twice the LOD and ten times LOD, respectively, recoveries ranged from 42 to 132%; for 382 pesticides, or 94.32%, recovery was from 60 to 120%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was always below 38% and was below 30% for 391 pesticides, or 96.54%. The LOD was 0.0005–0.3000 mg kg−1. The proposed method is suitable for determination of 405 pesticide residues in grain such as maize, wheat, oat, rice, and barley, etc.
Analysis of residues of 405 pesticidesGrainASEGC-MSLC-MS-MS