Review

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 381, Issue 2, pp 279-301

First online:

Passive sampling and/or extraction techniques in environmental analysis: a review

  • Jacek NamieśnikAffiliated withDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology Email author 
  • , Bożena ZabiegałaAffiliated withDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology
  • , Agata Kot-WasikAffiliated withDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology
  • , Monika PartykaAffiliated withDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology
  • , Andrzej WasikAffiliated withDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology

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Abstract

The current state-of-the-art of passive sampling and/or extraction methods for long-term monitoring of pollutants in different environmental compartments is discussed in this review. Passive dosimeters that have been successfully used to monitor organic and inorganic contaminants in air, water, sediments, and soil are presented. The application of new approaches to the determination of pollutants at the sampling stage is discussed. The main milestones in the development of passive techniques for sampling and/or extraction of analytes, and in biomonitors used in environmental analysis, are summarized in this review. Passive samplers and biomonitors are compared.

Keywords

Sampling/extraction techniques Passive sampling Environmental analysis Solid-phase microextraction Biomonitoring Speciation