Review

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 377, Issue 3, pp 469-477

Array biosensor for detection of toxins

  • Frances S. LiglerAffiliated withCenter for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, Naval Research Laboratory Email author 
  • , Chris Rowe TaittAffiliated withCenter for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, Naval Research Laboratory
  • , Lisa C. Shriver-LakeAffiliated withCenter for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, Naval Research Laboratory
  • , Kim E. SapsfordAffiliated withGeorge Mason University
  • , Yura ShubinAffiliated withGeo-Centers Inc.
  • , Joel P. GoldenAffiliated withCenter for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, Naval Research Laboratory

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Abstract

The array biosensor is capable of detecting multiple targets rapidly and simultaneously on the surface of a single waveguide. Sandwich and competitive fluoroimmunoassays have been developed to detect high and low molecular weight toxins, respectively, in complex samples. Recognition molecules (usually antibodies) were first immobilized in specific locations on the waveguide and the resultant patterned array was used to interrogate up to 12 different samples for the presence of multiple different analytes. Upon binding of a fluorescent analyte or fluorescent immunocomplex, the pattern of fluorescent spots was detected using a CCD camera. Automated image analysis was used to determine a mean fluorescence value for each assay spot and to subtract the local background signal. The location of the spot and its mean fluorescence value were used to determine the toxin identity and concentration. Toxins were measured in clinical fluids, environmental samples and foods, with minimal sample preparation. Results are shown for rapid analyses of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, cholera toxin, botulinum toxoids, trinitrotoluene, and the mycotoxin fumonisin. Toxins were detected at levels as low as 0.5 ng mL−1.

Keywords

Biosensor Immunosensor Array Multi-analyte Toxin Detection