Review

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 376, Issue 8, pp 1192-1197

Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault

  • Adam NegruszAffiliated withForensic Science Program, Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences (M/C 865), College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago Email author 
  • , R. E. GaensslenAffiliated withForensic Science Program, Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences (M/C 865), College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago

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Abstract

This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific publications on drug-facilitated sexual assault has been observed. The list of drugs reportedly associated with sexual assault is long and among others includes flunitrazepam with other benzodiazepines such as diazepam, temazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, as well as γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and scopolamine. We discuss the most recent analytical developments in the toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated rape designed to reveal drug presence and that may help successfully prosecute perpetrators.

Keywords

Drug-facilitated sexual assault "Date-rape" drugs Forensic toxicology NCI–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry