Validation of an SPME method, using PDMS, PA, PDMS–DVB, and CW–DVB SPME fiber coatings, for analysis of organophosphorus insecticides in natural waters
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- Lambropoulou, D., Sakkas, V. & Albanis, T. Anal Bioanal Chem (2002) 374: 932. doi:10.1007/s00216-002-1549-7
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Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been optimized and applied to the determination of the organophosphorus insecticides diazinon, dichlofenthion, parathion methyl, malathion, fenitrothion, fenthion, parathion ethyl, bromophos methyl, bromophos ethyl, and ethion in natural waters. Four types of SPME fiber coated with different stationary phases (PDMS, PA, PDMS–DVB, and CW–DVB) were used to examine their extraction efficiencies for the compounds tested. Conditions that might affect the SPME procedure, such as extraction time and salt content, were investigated to determine the analytical performance of these fiber coatings for organophosphorus insecticides. The optimized procedure was applied to natural waters – tap, sea, river, and lake water – spiked in the concentration range 0.5 to 50 µg L–1 to obtain the analytical characteristics. Recoveries were relatively high – >80% for all types of aqueous sample matrix – and the calibration plots were reproducible and linear (R2>0.982) for all analytes with all the fibers tested. The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 90 ng L–1, depending on the detector and the compound investigated, with relative standard deviations in the range 3–15% at all the concentration levels tested. The SPME partition coefficients (Kf) of the organophosphorus insecticides were calculated experimentally for all the polymer coatings. The effect of organic matter such as humic acids on extraction efficiency was also studied. The analytical performance of the SPME procedure using all the fibers in the tested natural waters proved effective for the compounds.