, Volume 119, Issue 1-3, pp 191-210
Date: 09 Aug 2007

Role of hydration in determining the structure and vibrational spectra of L-alanine and N-acetyl L-alanine N′-methylamide in aqueous solution: a combined theoretical and experimental approach

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Abstract

In this work we have utilized recent density functional theory Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations to determine the first principles locations of the water molecules in the first solvation shell which are responsible for stabilizing the zwitterionic structure of L-alanine. Previous works have used chemical intuition or classical molecular dynamics simulations to position the water molecules. In addition, a complete shell of water molecules was not previously used, only the water molecules which were thought to be strongly interacting (H-bonded) with the zwitterionic species. In a previous work by Tajkhorshid et al. (J Phys Chem B 102:5899) the L-alanine zwitterion was stabilized by 4 water molecules, and a subsequent work by Frimand et al. (Chem Phys 255:165) the number was increased to 9 water molecules. Here we found that 20 water molecules are necessary to fully encapsulate the zwitterionic species when the molecule is embedded within a droplet of water, while 11 water molecules are necessary to encapsulate the polar region with the methyl group exposed to the surface, where it migrates during the MD simulation. Here we present our vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism and Raman and Raman optical activity simulations, which we compare to the previous simulations and experimental results. In addition, we report new VA, VCD, Raman and ROA measurements for L-alanine in aqueous solution with the latest commercially available FTIR VA/VCD instrument (Biotools, Jupiter, FL, USA) and Raman/ROA instrument (Biotools). The signal to noise of the spectra of L-alanine measured with these new instruments is significantly better than the previously reported spectra. Finally we reinvestigate the causes for the stability of the Pπ structure of the alanine dipeptide, also called N-acetyl-L-alanine N′-methylamide, in aqueous solution. Previously we utilized the B3LYP/6-31G* + Onsager continuum level of theory to investigate the stability of the NALANMA4WC Han et al. (J Phys Chem B 102:2587) Here we use the B3PW91 and B3LYP hybrid exchange correlation functionals, the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set and the PCM and CPCM (COSMO) continuum solvent models, in addition to the Onsager and no continuum solvent model. Here by the comparison of the VA, VCD, Raman and ROA spectra we can confirm the stability of the NALANMA4WC due to the strong hydrogen bonding between the four water molecules and the peptide polar groups. Hence we advocate the use of explicit water molecules and continuum solvent treatment for all future spectral simulations of amino acids, peptides and proteins in aqueous solution, as even the structure (conformer) present cannot always be found without this level of theory.

Festschift in Honor of Philip J. Stephens’ 65th Birthday.
During the proof stage of this article a very relevant article has been published by M. Losada and Y. Xu titled “Chirality transfer through hydrogen-bonding: Experimental and ab initio analyses of vibrational circular dichroism spectra of methyl lactate in water” in Phys Chem Chem Phys 2007, 9: 3127–3135. In that work they confirm that the effects of water are seen in the VCD spectra and hence it is fundamental to include explicit water molecules in modeling studies of the vibrational spectra of biomolecules in aqueous solution.