Psychopharmacology

, Volume 152, Issue 3, pp 334–342

Smoking-related cues elicit craving in tobacco "chippers": a replication and validation of the two-factor structure of the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges

  • G.M. Davies
  • P. Willner
  • M.J. Morgan
Original Investigation

DOI: 10.1007/s002130000526

Cite this article as:
Davies, G., Willner, P. & Morgan, M. Psychopharmacology (2000) 152: 334. doi:10.1007/s002130000526

Abstract.

Rationale: The reliability and validity of the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU), a multi-factorial measure of cravings to smoke cigarettes has recently been called into question. Objective: In the first phase of the present study, the reliability of the two-factor structure of QSU was examined. The new and original factor structures were then used to investigate the effects of 2 h of abstinence from smoking, and exposure to smoking-related cues, in a subset of the same sample of regular smokers. The present study also investigated the effects of smoking-related cues on QSU measures in tobacco "chippers" (occasional non-dependent smokers). Methods: The factor structure of the QSU was investigated with a factor analysis of responses to the 32 QSU items produced by a sample of 271 regular smokers. A subset of these data was used to assess the influence of abstinence and cues on QSU factor scores. The final study used a sample of 32 tobacco chippers to assess the effect of smoking-related cues on their QSU factor scores. Results: The results revealed a two-factor structure almost identical to that published by Tiffany and Drobes. In the second experiment, a brief period of abstinence significantly elevated factor 1 scores, but not factor 2 scores, compared to the non-abstinent condition. Exposure to smoking-related cues significantly elevated factor 2 scores and also tended to elevate factor 1 scores. In experiment 3, exposure to smoking-related cues significantly elevated factor 1 scores, but not factor 2 scores, in tobacco chippers. Conclusion: The QSU is a psychometrically sound instrument for the assessment of urges to smoke, which shows good construct validity. The two factors of the QSU show differential discriminative properties.

Smoking Craving Cues Reinforcement Chippers

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • G.M. Davies
    • 1
  • P. Willner
    • 1
  • M.J. Morgan
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Substance Abuse Research, Department of Psychology, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, South WalesUK