Psychopharmacology

, Volume 190, Issue 3, pp 269–319

Guidelines on nicotine dose selection for in vivo research

Authors

    • Department of Pharmacology, College of MedicineUniversity of Tennessee Health Science Center
  • David J. Balfour
    • Department of Pharmacology and NeuroscienceUniversity of Dundee Medical School
  • Neal L. Benowitz
    • Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Departments of Medicine and Biopharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of California-San Francisco
  • R. Thomas Boyd
    • Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine and Public HealthOhio State University
  • Jerry J. Buccafusco
    • Department of PharmacologyMedical College of Georgia
  • Anthony R. Caggiula
    • Department of PsychologyUniversity of Pittsburgh
  • Caroline R. Craig
    • Section of NeurobiologyUniversity of California-San Diego
  • Allan C. Collins
    • Institute for Behavioral GeneticsUniversity of Colorado
  • M. Imad Damaj
    • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of VirginiaVirginia Commonwealth University
  • Eric C. Donny
    • Department of PsychologyUniversity of Pittsburgh
  • Phillip S. Gardiner
    • Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program, Office of the PresidentUniversity of California
  • Sharon R. Grady
    • Institute for Behavioral GeneticsUniversity of Colorado
  • Ulrike Heberlein
    • Department of AnatomyUniversity of California-San Francisco
  • Sherry S. Leonard
    • Departments of Psychiatry and PharmacologyUniversity of Colorado Health Sciences Center
  • Edward D. Levin
    • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesDuke University Medical Center
  • Ronald J. Lukas
    • Division of NeurobiologyBarrow Neurological Institute
  • Athina Markou
    • Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineUniversity of California-San Diego
  • Michael J. Marks
    • Institute for Behavioral GeneticsUniversity of Colorado
  • Sarah E. McCallum
    • Parkinson’s Institute
  • Neeraja Parameswaran
    • Parkinson’s Institute
  • Kenneth A. Perkins
    • Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
  • Marina R. Picciotto
    • Department of PsychiatryYale University School of Medicine
  • Maryka Quik
    • Parkinson’s Institute
  • Jed E. Rose
    • Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation ResearchDuke University Medical Center
  • Adrian Rothenfluh
    • Department of AnatomyUniversity of California-San Francisco
  • William R. Schafer
    • Section of NeurobiologyUniversity of California-San Diego
  • Ian P. Stolerman
    • Section of Behavioral Pharmacology, Institute of PsychiatryKing’s College
  • Rachel F. Tyndale
    • Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Toronto
  • Jeanne M. Wehner
    • Institute for Behavioral GeneticsUniversity of Colorado
  • Jeffrey M. Zirger
    • Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine and Public HealthOhio State University
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00213-006-0441-0

Cite this article as:
Matta, S.G., Balfour, D.J., Benowitz, N.L. et al. Psychopharmacology (2007) 190: 269. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0441-0

Abstract

Rationale

This review provides insight for the judicious selection of nicotine dose ranges and routes of administration for in vivo studies. The literature is replete with reports in which a dosaging regimen chosen for a specific nicotine-mediated response was suboptimal for the species used. In many cases, such discrepancies could be attributed to the complex variables comprising species-specific in vivo responses to acute or chronic nicotine exposure.

Objectives

This review capitalizes on the authors’ collective decades of in vivo nicotine experimentation to clarify the issues and to identify the variables to be considered in choosing a dosaging regimen. Nicotine dose ranges tolerated by humans and their animal models provide guidelines for experiments intended to extrapolate to human tobacco exposure through cigarette smoking or nicotine replacement therapies. Just as important are the nicotine dosaging regimens used to provide a mechanistic framework for acquisition of drug-taking behavior, dependence, tolerance, or withdrawal in animal models.

Results

Seven species are addressed: humans, nonhuman primates, rats, mice, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, and zebrafish. After an overview on nicotine metabolism, each section focuses on an individual species, addressing issues related to genetic background, age, acute vs chronic exposure, route of administration, and behavioral responses.

Conclusions

The selected examples of successful dosaging ranges are provided, while emphasizing the necessity of empirically determined dose–response relationships based on the precise parameters and conditions inherent to a specific hypothesis. This review provides a new, experimentally based compilation of species-specific dose selection for studies on the in vivo effects of nicotine.

Keywords

HumanNonhuman primateRatMouseDrosophilaC. elegansZebrafish

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006