Distinct temporal phases in the behavioral pharmacology of LSD: dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects in the rat and implications for psychosis
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- Marona-Lewicka, D., Thisted, R.A. & Nichols, D.E. Psychopharmacology (2005) 180: 427. doi:10.1007/s00213-005-2183-9
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The effect of LSD in humans has been described as occurring in two temporal phases. The behavioral effects in rats also occur in two temporal phases: an initial suppression of exploration followed by increased locomotor activity.
We decided to investigate this phenomenon from the perspective that the pharmacology might have relevance to the neurochemical mechanisms underlying psychosis.
Twenty-five male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained to discriminate LSD (186 nmol/kg, 0.08 mg/kg, i.p.) with a 30-min preinjection time (LSD-30, N=12) and LSD (372 nmol/kg, 0.16 mg/kg, i.p.) with a 90-min preinjection time (LSD-90, N=13) from saline, using a two-lever, food-reinforced operant conditioning task.
LSD (186 or 372 nmol/kg, 0.08 or 0.16 mg/kg) given 30 min prior to training produced a cue that was completely antagonized by 5-HT2A antagonists and lasted no longer than 1 h. LSD (372 nmol/kg, 0.16 mg/kg) injected 90 min before training produced a cue that was not fully blocked by 5-HT2A antagonists, but instead was significantly inhibited by haloperidol. In these rats, substitution no longer occurred with the 5-HT2 agonists DOI or LSD (30 min preinjection), but full substitution was obtained with the D2 agonists apomorphine, N-propyldihydrexidine, and quinelorane.
The discriminative stimulus effect of LSD in rats occurs in two phases, and these studies provide evidence that the later temporal phase is mediated by D2 dopamine receptor stimulation. A second temporal phase that involves dopaminergic pathways would be consistent with the widespread belief that excessive dopaminergic activity may be an underlying cause of paranoid psychosis.