Acute effects of a short bout of moderate versus light intensity exercise versus inactivity on tobacco withdrawal symptoms in sedentary smokers
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
A previous study found that a 10-min bout of moderate intensity exercise reduced cigarette withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in sedentary smokers but the effect may have been due to participants focusing attention on physical activity rather than the activity itself.
This study examined the effect of 5 min of moderate intensity exercise and 5 min of light intensity exercise on tobacco withdrawal symptoms amongst sedentary smokers.
Eighty-four smokers attended a laboratory session having abstained from smoking for between 11 and 14 h. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: (i) light intensity exercise [n=28; 10–20% of heart rate reserve (HRR)]; (ii) moderate intensity exercise (n=28; 40–60% HRR), (iii) a passive control condition (n=28). Both exercise conditions involved 5 min of stationary cycling and participants rated tobacco withdrawal symptoms and cravings immediately before exercise (baseline), during exercise at 2.5 min, immediately following exercise, then after 5 and 10 min of rest. Control participants made the same ratings across an equivalent time period.
For moderate intensity exercise compared to light intensity exercise and control there was a significant reduction in strength of desire to smoke, relative to baseline, both during exercise and up to 5 min post-exercise. Relative to baseline, there were also significant reductions in restlessness, stress, tension and poor concentration at 5 and 10 min post-exercise, for moderate intensity exercise compared to light intensity exercise and control.
Five minutes of moderate intensity exercise is associated with a short-term reduction in desire to smoke and tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Very brief bouts of exercise may therefore be useful as an aid to smoking cessation.
- Blair SN, Haskell W, Ho P, Paffenberger R, Vranizan K, Farquhar J, Wood P (1985) Assessment of habitual physical activity by a seven day recall in a community survey and controlled experiments. Am J Epidemiol 122:794–804
- Bock B, Marcus B, King T, Borelli B. Roberts M (1999) Exercise effects on withdrawal and mood among women attempting smoking cessation. Addict Behav 24:399–410
- Borg GAV (1998) Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill.
- Department of Health Statistics Bulletin (2000) Statistics on smoking: England, 1978 onwards. Crown, London
- Doll R, Peto R, Wheatley K, Gray R, Sutherland I (1994) Mortality in relation to smoking: 4 years’ observation on male British doctors. BMJ 309:901–908
- Ford ES, Ahluwalia IB, Galuska DA (2000) Social relationships and cardiovascular disease risk factors: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Prev Med 30:83–92 CrossRef
- Franklin BA (ed) (2000) American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, 6th edn. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia
- Grove J, Wilkinson A, Dawson, B (1993) Effects of exercise on selected correlates of smoking withdrawal. Int J Sport Psychol 24:217–236
- Heatherton T, Kozlowski L, Frecker R, Fagerström K (1991) The Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. Br J Addict 86:1119–1128
- Hughes J (1992) Tobacco withdrawal in self-quitters. J Consult Clin Psychol 60:689–697
- Karvonen MJ, Kentala E, Mustala O (1957) The effects of training on heart rate: a longitudinal study. Ann Med Exp Biol 35:305
- Kimm SY, Glynn NW, Kriska AM, Barton BA, Kronsberg SS, Daniels SR, Crawford PB, Sabry ZI, Liu, K (2002) Decline in physical activity in black girls and white girls during adolescence. N Engl J Med 347:709–15 CrossRef
- King T, Matachin M, Marcus B, Bock B, Tripolone, J (2000) Body image evaluations in women smokers. Addict Behav 25:613–618 CrossRef
- Marcus BH, Albrecht AE, King AE, Parisi AF, Pinto BM, Roberts M, Niaura RS, Abrams DB (1999) The efficacy of exercise as an aid for smoking cessation in women: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Int Med 14:1229–1234 CrossRef
- McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF (1971) Profiles of mood states. Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego, Calif.
- Morgan W (1997) Physical activity and mental health. Taylor & Francis, Bristol
- Noble BJ, Borg GAV, Jacobs I (1983) A category-ratio perceived exertion scale: relationship to blood and muscle lactates and heart rate. Med Sci Sports Exerc 15:523–528
- Pomerleau OF, Scherzer HH, Grunberg NE, Pomerlau CS, Judge J, Fertig JB, Burleson J (1987) The effects of acute exercise on subsequent cigarette smoking. J Behav Med 10:117–127
- Pomerleau CS, Brouwer RJ, Jones LT (2000) Weight concerns in women smokers during pregnancy and postpartum. Addict Behav 25:759–767 CrossRef
- Silagy C, Mant D, Fowler G, Lodge M (2001) Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Library 2. Update Software, Oxford
- Thayer R, Peters D, Takahaski P, Birkhead-Flight A (1993) Mood and behaviour following moderate exercise. Person Indiv Diff 14:97–104 CrossRef
- Tiffany ST, Drobes DJ (1991) The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. Br J Addict 86:1467–1476
- Ussher MH, West R (2003) Interest in nicotine replacement therapy amongst pregnant smokers. Tobacco Control 12:108–109 CrossRef
- Ussher MH, West R, Taylor AH, McEwan A (2000) Exercise interventions in smoking cessation. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Library, 4. Update software, Oxford
- Ussher MH, Nunziata P, Cropley M, West R (2001) Acute effect of a short bout of moderate exercise on tobacco withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke. Psychopharmacology 158:66–72 CrossRef
- Ussher M, West R, McEwen A, Taylor A, Steptoe A (2003) Efficacy of exercise counselling as an aid for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. Addiction 98:523–532
- Ussher MH, Hibbs N, West R (2004) A survey of pregnant smokers’ interest in different types of smoking cessation support. Patient Education and Counselling (in press)
- Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A (1988) Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. J Person Soc Psychol 54:1063–1070
- West R (1984) Psychology and pharmacology in cigarette withdrawal. J Psychosom Res 25:379–386 CrossRef
- West R, Russell M (1985) Pre-abstinence smoke intake and smoking motivation as predictors of severity of cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology 87:407–415
- West R, Schneider N (1987) Craving for cigarettes. Br J Addict 82:407–415
- West R, Hajek P, Belcher M (1989) Severity of withdrawal symptoms as a predictor of outcome of an attempt to quit smoking. Psychol Med 19:981–985
- West R, McEwen A, Bolling K (1999) Smoking cessation and harm minimisation strategies in the general population. Health Education Authority, London
- Whaley M, Woodall T, Kaminsky L, Emmett J (1997) Reliability of perceived exertion during graded exercise testing in apparently healthy adults. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 17:37–42 CrossRef
- Acute effects of a short bout of moderate versus light intensity exercise versus inactivity on tobacco withdrawal symptoms in sedentary smokers
Volume 174, Issue 3 , pp 320-326
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Smoking cessation
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK
- 2. Department of Community Health Sciences (Psychology), St George’s Hospital Medical School, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK
- 3. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK