The emerging mycotoxin, enniatin B1, down-modulates the gastrointestinal toxicity of T-2 toxin in vitro on intestinal epithelial cells and ex vivo on intestinal explants
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- Kolf-Clauw, M., Sassahara, M., Lucioli, J. et al. Arch Toxicol (2013) 87: 2233. doi:10.1007/s00204-013-1067-8
Enniatins, the most prevalent emerging mycotoxins, represent an emerging food safety issue, because of their common co-occurrence with other fusariotoxins such as trichothecenes co-produced by Fusarium spp on field grains and because of their extensive prevalence in grains. In this study, the intestinal toxicity of enniatin B1 (ENN) alone and mixed with the most toxic trichothecene T-2 toxin (T2) was characterized by using two biological models from pig, the most sensitive species: the intestinal cell line IPEC1 (in vitro exposure) and jejunal explants (ex vivo exposure). Dose-dependent decreases in cell proliferation in IPEC1 and in the histopathological scores of explants were observed for ENN at μM-levels and for T2 at nM-levels, with IC50 values for ENN of 15.8 and 29.7 μM, and for T2 of 9.3 and 15.1 nM in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Interaction analysis by probabilistic and by determinist approaches showed a less than additive effect both in vitro and ex vivo, at IC50 values, with increasing antagonism with decreasing concentrations of toxins. The results obtained by the determinist median-effect dose analysis and by the nonlinear regression analysis were concordant. All the median-effect doses estimated for IPEC cells were included in the IC50 confidence intervals of the nonlinear regression fitting. Given the occurrence of enniatins, potential synergy following the co-occurrence of enniatins and the major fusariotoxins, especially trichothecene B deoxynivalenol should be investigated.