Chemical and biological properties of toxic metals and use of chelating agents for the pharmacological treatment of metal poisoning
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- Sinicropi, M.S., Amantea, D., Caruso, A. et al. Arch Toxicol (2010) 84: 501. doi:10.1007/s00204-010-0544-6
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Exposure to toxic metals is a well-known problem in industrialized countries. Metals interfere with a number of physiological processes, including central nervous system (CNS), haematopoietic, hepatic and renal functions. In the evaluation of the toxicity of a particular metal it is crucial to consider many parameters: chemical forms (elemental, organic or inorganic), binding capability, presence of specific proteins that selectively bind metals, etc. Medical treatment of acute and chronic metal toxicity is provided by chelating agents, namely organic compounds capable of interacting with metal ions to form structures called chelates. The present review attempts to provide updated information about the mechanisms, the cellular targets and the effects of toxic metals.