Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 79, Issue 3, pp 177–182

Tumor necrosis factor is not required for particle-induced genotoxicity and pulmonary inflammation

  • Anne T. Saber
  • Jette Bornholdt
  • Marianne Dybdahl
  • Anoop K. Sharma
  • Steffen Loft
  • Ulla Vogel
  • Håkan Wallin
Genotoxicity

DOI: 10.1007/s00204-004-0613-9

Cite this article as:
Saber, A.T., Bornholdt, J., Dybdahl, M. et al. Arch Toxicol (2005) 79: 177. doi:10.1007/s00204-004-0613-9

Abstract

Particle-induced carcinogenicity is not well understood, but might involve inflammation. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered to be an important mediator in inflammation. We investigated its role in particle-induced inflammation and DNA damage in mice with and without TNF signaling. TNF−/− mice and TNF+/+ mice were exposed by inhalation to 20 mg m−3 carbon black (CB), 20 mg m−3 diesel exhaust particles (DEP), or filtered air for 90 min on each of four consecutive days. DEP, but not CB particles, induced infiltration of neutrophilic granulocutes into the lung lining fluid (by the cellular fraction in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid), and both particle types induced interleukin-6 mRNA in the lung tissue. Surprisingly, TNF−/− mice were intact in these inflammatory responses. There were more DNA strand breaks in the BAL cells of DEP-exposed TNF−/− mice and CB-exposed mice compared with the air-exposed mice. Thus, the CB-induced DNA damage in BAL-cells was independent of neutrophil infiltration. The data indicate that an inflammatory response was not a prerequisite for DNA damage, and TNF was not required for the induction of inflammation by DEP and CB particles.

Keywords

TNF knock-out miceLung inflammationDNA damageCarbon blackDiesel exhaust particles

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne T. Saber
    • 1
  • Jette Bornholdt
    • 1
  • Marianne Dybdahl
    • 1
  • Anoop K. Sharma
    • 1
  • Steffen Loft
    • 2
  • Ulla Vogel
    • 1
  • Håkan Wallin
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Occupational HealthCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Institute of Public HealthCopenhagen UniversityCopenhagenDenmark