Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 189, Issue 1, pp 27–41

Growth phase-associated changes in the transcriptome and proteome of Streptococcus pyogenes

  • Michelle A. Chaussee
  • Alexander V. Dmitriev
  • Eduardo A. Callegari
  • Michael S. Chaussee
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00203-007-0290-1

Cite this article as:
Chaussee, M.A., Dmitriev, A.V., Callegari, E.A. et al. Arch Microbiol (2008) 189: 27. doi:10.1007/s00203-007-0290-1


Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for approximately 500,000 deaths each year worldwide. Many of the associated virulence factors are expressed in a growth phase-dependent manner. To identify growth phase-associated changes in expression on a genomescale, the exponential and stationary phase transcriptomes and proteomes of S. pyogenes strain NZ131 (serotype M49) were compared by using Affymetrix NimbleExpress gene chips and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. At the transcript level, the expression of 689 genes, representing approximately 40% of the chromosome, differed by twofold or more between the two growth phases. The majority of transcripts that were more abundant in the early-stationary phase encoded proteins involved in energy conversion, transport, and metabolism. At the protein level, an average of 527 and 403 protein spots were detected in the exponential and stationary phases of growth, respectively. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 172 protein spots, 128 of which were growth phase regulated. Enzymes involved in glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism and several stress-responsive proteins were more abundant in the stationary phase of growth. Overall, the results identified growth phase-regulated genes in strain NZ131 and revealed significant post-transcriptional complexity associated with pathogen adaptation to the stationary phase of growth.


2-DE Proteomics Transcriptome Growth phase Group A streptococcus Bacterial pathogenesis 



Todd-Hewitt yeast extract broth


Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

Supplementary material

203_2007_290_MOESM1_ESM.doc (47 kb)
Fig. S1 (DOC 47 kb)
203_2007_290_MOESM2_ESM.doc (778 kb)
Table S1 (DOC 778 kb)
203_2007_290_MOESM3_ESM.doc (1.4 mb)
Table S2 (DOC 1482 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle A. Chaussee
    • 1
  • Alexander V. Dmitriev
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eduardo A. Callegari
    • 1
  • Michael S. Chaussee
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Basic Biomedical SciencesThe Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South DakotaVermillionUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular MicrobiologyInstitute of Experimental MedicineSaint-PetersburgRussia

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