Osteoporosis International

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 311–318

Hip Fracture Incidence Rates in Singapore 1991–1998


  • L. K. H. Koh
    • Department of Endocrinology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
  • S.-M. Saw
    • Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  • J. J. M. Lee
    • Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  • K.-H. Leong
    • Gleneagles Medical Center, Singapore;
  • J. Lee
    • KK Women”s & Children”s Hospital, Singapore
  • on behalf of the National Working Committee on Osteoporosis
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s001980170121

Cite this article as:
Koh, L., Saw, S., Lee, J. et al. Osteoporos Int (2001) 12: 311. doi:10.1007/s001980170121


In this population-based study, we determined the incidence rates of hip fracture among Singapore residents aged 50 years and above. Information was obtained from a centralized database system which captured admissions with the primary diagnosis of a closed hip fracture (ICD-9 codes 820, 820.0, 820.2 and 820.8, n= 12 927) from all health care establishments in the country from 1991 to 1998 inclusive. After removing duplicates, hospital transfers, readmissions and non-acute care admissions, the total number of hip fractures was 9406. Based on the national population census 1990 (n= 464 100) and yearly population estimates, the age-adjusted hip fracture rates for 1991–1998 (per 100 000) were 152 in men and 402 in women. This was 1.5 and over 5 times higher than corresponding rates in the 1960s. From 1991 to 1998, these hip fracture rates tended to increase by 0.7% annually in men and by 1.2% annually in women. Among the three major racial groups, in men, the Chinese had significantly higher age-adjusted hip fracture rates (per 100 000): 168 (95% confidence interval (CI) 158–178) compared with 128 (95% CI 105–152) for Indians and 71 (95% CI 54–88) for Malays. A similar pattern occurred in women: 410 (95% CI 395–425), for Chinese compared with 361 (95% CI 290–432) for Indians and 264 (95% CI 225–303) for Malays. Since the 1960s, the main increases in hip fracture rates have been seen in the Chinese and Malays, with the rates in Indians appearing to decrease. Hip fracture incidence rates in Singapore have risen rapidly over the past 30–40 years, particularly in women, and are now among the highest in Asia. Significant racial differences in hip fracture rates occur within the same community. Time trends in hip fracture rates differed between races.

Key words:Age-adjusted – Asian race – Elderly – Epidemiology – Osteoporosis – Racial difference

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2001