Osteoporosis International

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 487–494

Differences in Risk Factor Patterns Between Cervical and Trochanteric Hip Fractures


  • K. Michaëlsson
    • Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
  • E. Weiderpass
    • Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
  • B. Y. Farahmand
    • Division of Epidemiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  • J. A. Baron
    • Departments of Medicine and Community & Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA
  • P.-G. Persson
    • Division of Epidemiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  • L. Zidén
    • Vasa Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • C.  Zetterberg
    • Department of Orthopedics, Halmstad, Sweden;
  • S. Ljunghall
    • Department of Medical Sciences, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
  • on behalf of the Swedish Hip Fracture Study Group
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s001980050259

Cite this article as:
Michaëlsson, K., Weiderpass, E., Farahmand, B. et al. Osteoporos Int (1999) 10: 487. doi:10.1007/s001980050259


The two types of hip fracture – cervical and trochanteric femoral fractures – are generally considered together in etiologic studies. However, women with a trochanteric fracture may be more osteoporotic than those with cervical hip fractures, and have higher post-fracture mortality. To explore differences in risk factor patterns between the two types of hip fracture we used data from a large population-based case–control study in Swedish women, 50–81 years of age. Data were collected by questionnaire, to which more than 80% of subjects responded. Of the cases included, 811 had had a cervical fracture and 483 a trochanteric fracture during the study period; these cases were compared with 3312 randomly selected controls. Height and hormonal factors appeared to affect the risk of the two types of hip fracture differently. For every 5 cm of current height, women with a cervical fracture had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.23 (95% CI 1.15–1.32) compared with an OR of 1.06 (95% CI 0.97–1.15) for women with trochanteric fractures. Later menopausal age was protective for trochanteric fractures (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99 per 2 years) but no such association was found for cervical fractures. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had an OR of 1.48 (95% CI 1.12–1.95) for trochanteric fractures and 1.22 (95% CI 0.98–1.52) for cervical fractures. Current hormone replacement therapy was similarly protective for both fracture types, but former use substantially reduced risk only for trochanteric fractures: OR 0.55 (95% CI 0.33–0.92) compared with 1.00 (95% CI 0.71–1.39) for cervical fractures. These risk factor patterns suggest etiologic differences between the fracture types which have to be considered when planning preventive interventions.

Key words: Cervical – Estrogen – Height – Hip fracture – Trochanteric

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 1999