Original Article

Osteoporosis International

, Volume 24, Issue 7, pp 2033-2042

First online:

Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance

  • U. GastAffiliated withCentre for Muscle and Bone Research, Charité Universitätsmedizin BerlinZentrum für Muskel- und Knochenforschung, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin Email author 
  • , D. L. BelavýAffiliated withCentre for Muscle and Bone Research, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
  • , G. ArmbrechtAffiliated withCentre for Muscle and Bone Research, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
  • , K. KusyAffiliated withDepartment of Athletics, Eugeniusz Piasecki University School of Physical Education
  • , H. LexyAffiliated withCentre for Muscle and Bone Research, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
  • , R. RawerAffiliated withNovotec Medical GmbH
  • , J. RittwegerAffiliated withGerman Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace MedicineInstitute for Biomedical Research into Human Movement and Health, Manchester Metropolitan University
  • , K. WinwoodAffiliated withInstitute for Performance Research, Manchester Metropolitan University
  • , J. ZielińskiAffiliated withDepartment of Athletics, Eugeniusz Piasecki University School of Physical Education
    • , D. FelsenbergAffiliated withCentre for Muscle and Bone Research, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

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Abstract

Summary

Individuals who are involved in explosive sport types, such as 100-m sprints and long jump, have greater bone density, leg muscle size, jumping height and grip strength than individuals involved in long-distance running.

Introduction

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between different types of physical activity with bone, lean mass and neuromuscular performance in older individuals.

Methods

We examined short- (n = 50), middle- (n = 19) and long-distance (n = 109) athletes at the 15th European Masters Championships in Poznań, Poland. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and lean tissue mass. Maximal countermovement jump, multiple one-leg hopping and maximal grip force tests were performed.

Results

Short-distance athletes showed significantly higher aBMD at the legs, hip, lumbar spine and trunk compared to long-distance athletes (p ≤ 0.0012). Countermovement jump performance, hop force, grip force, leg lean mass and arm lean mass were greater in short-distance athletes (p ≤ 0.027). A similar pattern was seen in middle-distance athletes who typically showed higher aBMD and better neuromuscular performance than long-distance athletes, but lower in magnitude than short-distance athletes. In all athletes, aBMD was the same or higher than the expected age-adjusted population mean at the lumbar spine, hip and whole body. This effect was greater in the short- and middle-distance athletes.

Conclusions

The stepwise relation between short-, middle- and long-distance athletes on bone suggests that the higher-impact loading protocols in short-distance disciplines are more effective in promoting aBMD. The regional effect on bone, with the differences between the groups being most marked at load-bearing regions (legs, hip, spine and trunk) rather than non-load-bearing regions, is further evidence in support of the idea that bone adaptation to exercise is dependent upon the local loading environment, rather than as part of a systemic effect.

Keywords

Bone Elderly Exercise Mechanical loading Muscle Osteporosis