Osteoporosis International

, Volume 23, Issue 7, pp 1839–1848

Frailty and sarcopenia: definitions and outcome parameters

  • C. Cooper
  • W. Dere
  • W. Evans
  • J. A. Kanis
  • R. Rizzoli
  • A. A. Sayer
  • C. C. Sieber
  • J.-M. Kaufman
  • G. Abellan van Kan
  • S. Boonen
  • J. Adachi
  • B. Mitlak
  • Y. Tsouderos
  • Y. Rolland
  • J.-Y. L. Reginster
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00198-012-1913-1

Cite this article as:
Cooper, C., Dere, W., Evans, W. et al. Osteoporos Int (2012) 23: 1839. doi:10.1007/s00198-012-1913-1

Abstract

An operational definition of musculoskeletal decline in older people is needed to allow development of interventions for prevention or treatment, as was developed for the treatment of osteoporosis. Frailty and sarcopenia are linked, but distinct, correlates of musculoskeletal aging that have many causes, including age-related changes in body composition, inflammation, and hormonal imbalance. With the emergence of a number of exciting candidate therapies to retard the loss of muscle mass with aging, the derivation of a consensual definition of sarcopenia and physical frailty becomes an urgent priority. Although several consensual definitions have been proposed, these require clinical validation. An operational definition, which might provide a threshold for treatment/trial inclusion, should incorporate a loss of muscle mass as well as evidence of a decrease in muscle strength and/or physical activity. Evidence is required for a link between improvements in the measures of muscle strength and/or physical activity and clinical outcomes to allow development of interventions to improve clinical outcomes in frail older patients.

Keywords

AssessmentFrailtyOutcomePathophysiologySarcopeniaTreatment

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Cooper
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. Dere
    • 3
  • W. Evans
    • 4
  • J. A. Kanis
    • 5
  • R. Rizzoli
    • 6
  • A. A. Sayer
    • 7
  • C. C. Sieber
    • 8
  • J.-M. Kaufman
    • 9
  • G. Abellan van Kan
    • 10
  • S. Boonen
    • 11
  • J. Adachi
    • 12
  • B. Mitlak
    • 13
  • Y. Tsouderos
    • 14
  • Y. Rolland
    • 10
  • J.-Y. L. Reginster
    • 15
  1. 1.MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology UnitUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.Institute of Musculoskeletal ScienceUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  3. 3.Amgen Ltd.UxbridgeUK
  4. 4.Muscle Metabolism Discovery UnitGlaxoSmithKlineResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  5. 5.WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone DiseasesUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  6. 6.Rehabilitation and GeriatricsGeneva University HospitalsGenevaSwitzerland
  7. 7.Academic Geriatric Medicine, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology UnitUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  8. 8.Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Institute for Biomedicine of AgingFriedrich-Alexander-UniversityErlangen-NürnbergGermany
  9. 9.Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for HormonologyGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium
  10. 10.Gérontopôle de Toulouse, Department of Geriatric MedicineToulouse University HospitalToulouseFrance
  11. 11.Division of Gerontology and GeriatricsLeuven UniversityLeuvenBelgium
  12. 12.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  13. 13.Lilly Research LaboratoriesEli Lilly and CoIndianapolisUSA
  14. 14.ServierParisFrance
  15. 15.University of LiègeLiègeBelgium