Osteoporosis International

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 2003–2006

Bone fracture and bone fracture repair

Bone Quality Seminars: Bone Fracture Healing and Strengthening

DOI: 10.1007/s00198-011-1611-4

Cite this article as:
Fazzalari, N.L. Osteoporos Int (2011) 22: 2003. doi:10.1007/s00198-011-1611-4


Fracture healing is a multistage repair process that involves complex, well-orchestrated steps initiated in response to tissue injury. The early upregulation of IL-6, osteoprotegerin (OPG), VEGF, and BMPs indicates a central role for these factors in the initiation of cartilage and periosteal woven bone formation. In both callus fracture repair and stress fracture repair, the RANKL/OPG ratio is initially reduced, but peaks earlier in stress fracture healing than callus fracture healing. Though the understanding of the biological processes and molecular signals that coordinate fracture repair has advanced, the cause of variability observed in fracture repair is poorly understood.


FractureFracture repairMicrodamageStress fracture

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bone and Joint Research LaboratorySA Pathology and Hanson InstituteAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Discipline of PathologyUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia