Osteoporosis International

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 1389–1399

25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Canadian adults: biological, environmental, and behavioral correlates

  • L. S. Greene-Finestone
  • C. Berger
  • M. de Groh
  • D. A. Hanley
  • N. Hidiroglou
  • K. Sarafin
  • S. Poliquin
  • J. Krieger
  • J. B. Richards
  • D. Goltzman
  • CaMos Research Group
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00198-010-1362-7

Cite this article as:
Greene-Finestone, L.S., Berger, C., de Groh, M. et al. Osteoporos Int (2011) 22: 1389. doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1362-7

Abstract

Summary

We assessed vitamin D status and its correlates in the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Results showed that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <75 nmol/L were common. Given Canada’s high latitude, attention should be given to strategies for enhancing vitamin D status in the population.

Introduction

Inadequate vitamin D has been implicated as a risk factor for several clinical disorders. We assessed, in a Canadian cohort, vitamin D status and its correlates, based on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the best functional indicator of vitamin D status.

Methods

We studied 577 men and 1,335 women 35+ years from seven cities across Canada in the randomly selected, population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by immunoassay. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the association between 25(OH)D and determinants of vitamin D status.

Results

Participants (2.3%) were deficient in 25(OH)D (<27.5 nmol/L); a further 18.1% exhibited 25(OH)D insufficiency (27.5–50 nmol/L). Levels <75 nmol/L were evident in 57.5% of men and 60.7% of women and rose to 73.5% in spring (men) and 77.5% in winter (women); 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L was ≤10% year round for those supplementing with ≥400 IU vitamin D/day but was 43.9% among those not supplementing in winter and spring. The strongest predictors of reduced 25(OH)D for both men and women were winter and spring season, BMI ≥30, non-white ethnicity, and lower vitamin D supplementation and its modification by fall and winter.

Conclusions

In this national Canadian cohort, vitamin D levels <75 nmol/L were common, particularly among non-white and obese individuals, and in winter and spring. Vitamin D intake through diet and supplementation and maintenance of normal weight are key modifiable factors for enhancing vitamin D status and thus potentially influencing susceptibility to common chronic diseases.

Keywords

Hydroxyvitamin D levelsSunlight exposureVitamin D insufficiencyVitamin D supplements

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. S. Greene-Finestone
    • 1
  • C. Berger
    • 2
  • M. de Groh
    • 1
  • D. A. Hanley
    • 3
  • N. Hidiroglou
    • 4
  • K. Sarafin
    • 4
  • S. Poliquin
    • 2
  • J. Krieger
    • 4
  • J. B. Richards
    • 5
  • D. Goltzman
    • 2
    • 6
    • 7
  • CaMos Research Group
    • 7
  1. 1.Public Health Agency of CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.CaMos Coordinating CentreMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  4. 4.Health CanadaOttawaCanada
  5. 5.Department of Medicine, Jewish General HospitalMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  6. 6.Department of MedicineMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  7. 7.CaMos, Royal Victoria HospitalMontréalCanada