Original Article

Osteoporosis International

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 133-141

First online:

Impact of smoking on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in elderly men: the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study

  • J. TamakiAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine
  • , M. IkiAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine Email author 
  • , Y. FujitaAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine
  • , K. KoudaAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine
  • , A. YuraAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine
  • , E. KadowakiAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine
  • , Y. SatoAffiliated withDepartment of Human Life, Jin-ai University
  • , J. S. MoonAffiliated withFaculty of Human Sciences, Taisei Gakuin University
  • , K. TomiokaAffiliated withDepartment of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine
    • , N. OkamotoAffiliated withDepartment of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine
    • , N. KurumataniAffiliated withDepartment of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine

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Abstract

Summary

Our cross-sectional analysis of 1,576 men aged ≥65 years examined smoking effects on bone status. Number of smoking years was associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD), after adjusting for age, height, weight, and number of cigarettes smoked daily. Smoking did not affect biochemical marker serum values for bone turnover.

Introduction

The impact of smoking on bone status in men has not been conclusively established. We examined how smoking and its cessation influence bone status and metabolism in men.

Methods

We analyzed 1,576 men among a baseline survey of Japanese men aged ≥65 years, the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men study, conducted during 2007–2008.

Results

Lumbar spine (LS) BMD values among never, former, and current smokers were 1.045 ± 0.194, 1.030 ± 0.189, and 1.001 ± 0.182 g/cm2 (P = 0.005), respectively, while total hip (TH) BMD values were 0.888 ± 0.120, 0.885 ± 0.127, and 0.870 ± 0.124 (P = 0.078), respectively. The significant trend for LS BMD remained after adjusting for the covariates; age, height, weight, physical activity, milk consumption, and drinking habit (P = 0.036). Among never and ever (current and former) smokers, LS and TH BMD decreased with the number of pack years or the number of smoking years, respectively, adjusted for those covariates. Among ever smokers, LS and TH BMD decreased with the number of smoking years after adjusting for age, height, weight, and number of cigarettes smoked daily. Smoking did not reveal significant effect for serum osteocalcin or tartrate resistant acid phosphatase isoenzyme 5b.

Conclusion

The impact of smoking on bone status is mainly associated with the number of smoking years in elderly men.

Keywords

Bone metabolism Bone mineral density Men Smoking