Risk factors for decreased bone density and effects of HIV on bone in the elderly
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- Jones, S., Restrepo, D., Kasowitz, A. et al. Osteoporos Int (2008) 19: 913. doi:10.1007/s00198-007-0524-8
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Most studies of bone density in HIV-infected individuals focus on young men. This study compares differences in bone density in elderly HIV positive men and women to HIV negative controls. Bone density was lower in the lumbar spine and hip in the HIV-infected group. Antiretrovirals may be associated with decreased bone mineralization.
Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be at increased risk for osteoporosis. Prolonged exposures to HIV and/or antiretroviral therapy are possible causes for this association. This study compares differences in bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly HIV positive men and women to HIV negative controls.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 57 HIV-infected and 47 HIV negative subjects over age 55. BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip and markers of bone turnover were compared.
BMD was borderline lower in the lumbar spine and significantly lower in the hip in the HIV-infected group. Controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index, differences between the groups were significant at both sites. There was no difference in markers of bone turnover between the groups. Tenofovir use was significantly associated with decreased BMD at the spine while protease inhibitor use was significantly associated with decreased BMD at the hip.
Elderly men and women with HIV have lower bone mass than HIV negative controls. Decreased body mass index was the most important risk factor associated with decreased BMD. Bone demineralization was observed among HIV-infected subjects receiving either tenofovir or a protease inhibitor.