Osteoporosis International

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 227–234

Correlates of bone mineral density in men of African ancestry: The Tobago Bone Health Study

  • D. D. Hill
  • J. A. Cauley
  • Y. Sheu
  • C. H. Bunker
  • A. L. Patrick
  • C. E. Baker
  • G. L. A. Beckles
  • V. W. Wheeler
  • J. M. Zmuda
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00198-007-0450-9

Cite this article as:
Hill, D.D., Cauley, J.A., Sheu, Y. et al. Osteoporos Int (2008) 19: 227. doi:10.1007/s00198-007-0450-9

Abstract

Summary

Correlates of BMD were examined in a cross-sectional analysis of men of West African ancestry. BMD, measured at the total hip and the femoral neck subregion, was associated with age, anthropometric, lifestyle, and medical factors in multiple linear regression models. These models explained 25–27% of the variability in total hip and femoral neck BMD, respectively, and 13% of the variability in estimated volumetric BMD.

Objective

To examine the correlates of bone mineral density (BMD) in men of West African ancestry.

Methods

Two thousand five hundred and one men aged 40 to 93 years were recruited from the Caribbean Island of Tobago. Participants completed a questionnaire and physical examination. We measured hip BMD and body composition, using DXA. Volumetric BMD was estimated as bone mineral apparent density (BMAD).

Results

BMD was 10% and 20% higher in African Caribbean males compared to U.S. non-Hispanic black and white males, respectively. In multiple linear regression models, greater lean mass, history of working on a fishing boat or on a farm, frequent walking, and self-reported diabetes were significantly associated with higher BMD. Fat mass, history of farming, and self-reported hypertension were also associated with higher BMAD. Older age, mixed African ancestry, and history of a fracture were associated with lower BMD and BMAD. Lean body mass explained 20%, 18% and 6% of the variance in BMD at the total hip, femoral neck and BMAD, respectively.

Conclusions

African Caribbean males have the highest BMD on a population level ever reported. Lean mass was the single most important correlate. Variability in BMD/BMAD was also explained by age, mixed African ancestry, anthropometric, lifestyle, and medical factors.

Keywords

African ancestryBlacksBlack continental groupBMDBone densitometryEpidemiologyMenOsteoporosis

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. D. Hill
    • 1
  • J. A. Cauley
    • 1
    • 5
  • Y. Sheu
    • 1
  • C. H. Bunker
    • 1
  • A. L. Patrick
    • 2
  • C. E. Baker
    • 3
  • G. L. A. Beckles
    • 4
  • V. W. Wheeler
    • 2
  • J. M. Zmuda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public HealthUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Tobago Health Studies OfficeScarboroughTobagoTrinidad and Tobago
  3. 3.Office of Measurement and EvaluationUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.Division of Diabetes Translation, Epidemiology and Statistics Branch, National Center for Chronic Disease PreventionCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.University of PittsburghDepartment of EpidemiologyPittsburghUSA