Osteoporosis International

, Volume 16, Issue 7, pp 849–855

Development of a clinical assessment tool in identifying Asian men with low bone mineral density and comparison of its usefulness to quantitative bone ultrasound


    • Department of MedicineQueen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong
  • Andrew Y. Y. Ho
    • Department of MedicineQueen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong
  • Philip D. Ross
    • Merck Research Laboratories
  • Jean-Yves Reginster
    • Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Epidemiology Unit, WHO Collaborating Center for Public Aspects of Osteoarticular DisordersUniversity of Liège
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00198-004-1778-z

Cite this article as:
Kung, A.W.C., Ho, A.Y.Y., Ross, P.D. et al. Osteoporos Int (2005) 16: 849. doi:10.1007/s00198-004-1778-z


Osteoporosis in men is a largely neglected condition in Asia (and elsewhere), despite the fact that one-third of hip fractures occur in men. Moreover, access to bone mineral density (BMD) measurements is limited in many areas of Asia, and inexpensive methods of targeting high risk patients for BMD measurements would be valuable. We have developed a simple clinical assessment tool to identify high risk Asian men for BMD measurements. Information on risk factors was collected from 420 community-dwelling adult Chinese men aged 50 years and above using a structured questionnaire, and the ability of these risk factors to identify subjects with femoral neck BMD T score ≤ −2.5 was assessed. Multiple regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final clinical risk assessment tool based on only age and weight, similar to the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), described previously for Asian women. The OSTA values of ≤ −1 had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 66%, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.83. The index was validated in another sample of 356 men with a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 67 %, and an AUC of 0.85. The usefulness of OSTA was further compared to calcaneal quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in the validation sample of 356 men. The optimal cutoff T score of −1.2 for QUS yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 75 and 67%, respectively. The AUC for QUS was 0.79. Combining OSTA and QUI gave a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 66% to identify men with low BMD at the femoral neck, and an AUC of 0.86 which was statistically not different from either OSTA or QUI alone. We conclude that OSTA is a simple and effective clinical risk assessment tool for identifying not only female but also male subjects at increased risk of osteoporosis, and its use could facilitate the appropriate and more cost-effective use of bone densitometry in developing countries.


Asian menBone ultrasoundClinical assessment toolOSTA

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© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2004