, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 65-71,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 06 Aug 2011

Avulsion of puborectalis muscle and other risk factors for cystocele recurrence: a 2-year follow-up study


Introduction and hypothesis

This study aimed to determine the relationship of recurrent cystocele with avulsion of puborectalis muscle and other risk factors.


In this prospective observational cohort study, 245 women undergoing anterior colporrhaphy were invited for a 2-year follow-up visit consisting of a questionnaire, physical examination, and translabial 3D ultrasonography. Women with and without recurrent cystocele were compared to identify recurrence risk factors.


Of the 245 women, 156 agreed to the follow-up visit (63.7%). Objective recurrence rate was 80 of 156 (51.3%). Seventeen of the 156 (10.9%) reported subjective recurrence. Risk factors for anatomical recurrence were complete avulsion of puborectalis muscle (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3, 4.7), advanced preoperative stage (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0, 4.1), family history of prolapse (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2, 4.9), and sacrospinous fixation (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 2.0, 21.2).


Risk factors for anatomical cystocele recurrence after anterior colporrhaphy were complete avulsion of puborectalis muscle, advanced preoperative stage, family history of prolapse, and sacrospinous fixation.