Goal attainment scaling in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: development and pilot testing of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire
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- Brubaker, L., Khullar, V., Piault, E. et al. Int Urogynecol J (2011) 22: 937. doi:10.1007/s00192-011-1382-7
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Introduction and hypothesis
The Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire was developed to identify treatment goals and assess goal-achievement in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
This study consisted of (1) gathering information on goal setting/attainment concepts, (2) goal elicitation (n = 41 patients with LUTS), (3) cognitive debriefing of draft questionnaire (n = 11), and (4) pilot testing (n = 104).
SAGA consists of baseline (goal-assessment; ranking) and follow-up (goal-achievement) modules. In addition to goals most frequently mentioned, patients can list up to five open goals. Goals most commonly reported as “very important” in pilot testing included reducing urgency (72%), incontinence (65%), and nocturia (64%). Treatment goals spontaneously reported as “very important” were reducing incontinence (45%), nocturia (40%), and frequency (26%).
SAGA may be used to identify treatment goals and assess goal-achievement in patients with LUTS in the clinic and for research (with additional validation). This information may promote patient–physician interaction and help patients establish realistic treatment goals, which may in turn improve treatment adherence and outcomes.
KeywordsAntimuscarinicBenign prostatic hyperplasiaBladder outlet obstructionGoal attainment scalingLower urinary tract symptomsOveractive bladder
Goal attainment scaling
Health-related quality of life
Lower urinary tract symptoms
Overactive Bladder Questionnaire
Overactive Bladder Satisfaction
Patient Perception of Bladder Condition
Self-Assessment Goal Achievement