International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 193–202

Urinary incontinence in nulliparous women before and during pregnancy: prevalence, incidence, and associated risk factors

Authors

    • Healthy Mothers Healthy Families Research GroupMurdoch Childrens Research Institute
    • Department of General Practice and School of Population HealthUniversity of Melbourne
  • Susan Donath
    • Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics UnitMurdoch Childrens Research Institute
  • Christine MacArthur
    • Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and BiostatisticsUniversity of Birmingham
  • Ellie A. McDonald
    • Healthy Mothers Healthy Families Research GroupMurdoch Childrens Research Institute
  • Ann H. Krastev
    • Healthy Mothers Healthy Families Research GroupMurdoch Childrens Research Institute
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00192-009-1011-x

Cite this article as:
Brown, S.J., Donath, S., MacArthur, C. et al. Int Urogynecol J (2010) 21: 193. doi:10.1007/s00192-009-1011-x

Abstract

Introduction

Few studies have examined associations of prepregnancy urinary incontinence (UI).

Methods

Multicentre prospective pregnancy cohort study (n = 1,507) using standardised measures to assess frequency and severity of UI.

Results

Prevalence of UI increased from 10.8% in the 12 months before the index pregnancy to 55.9% in the third trimester. Stress incontinence (36.9%) and mixed incontinence (13.1%) were more common during pregnancy than urge incontinence alone (5.9%). UI before pregnancy was associated with childhood enuresis (adjusted odds ratio (AdjOR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–3.4), higher maternal body mass index (AdjOR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–3.8), and previous miscarriages or terminations (AdjOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3). The strongest predictor of incident UI in pregnancy was occasional leakage (less than once a month) before pregnancy (AdjOR = 3.6, 95% CI 2.8–4.7).

Conclusions

Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interplay of prepregnancy and pregnancy-related factors in the aetiology of UI in nulliparous women.

Keywords

Childhood enuresisNulliparousPregnancyProspective cohort studyUrinary incontinence

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

CATI

Computer-assisted telephone interview

OR

Odds ratio

UI

Urinary incontinence

Copyright information

© The International Urogynecological Association 2009