“The cough game”: are there characteristic urethrovesical movement patterns associated with stress incontinence?
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- Lewicky-Gaupp, C., Blaivas, J., Clark, A. et al. Int Urogynecol J (2009) 20: 171. doi:10.1007/s00192-008-0738-0
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This study was carried out to determine whether five experts in female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) could discover a pattern of urethrovesical movement characteristic of SUI on dynamic perineal ultrasound. A secondary analysis of data from a case–control study was performed. Ultrasounds from 31 cases (daily SUI) and 42 controls (continent volunteers) of similar age and parity were analyzed. Perineal ultrasound was performed during a single cough. The five experts, blinded to continence status and urodynamics, classified each woman as stress continent or incontinent. Correct responses ranged from 45.7% to 65.8% (mean 57.4 ± 7.6). Sensitivity was 53.0 ± 8.8% and specificity 61.2 ± 12.4%. The positive predictive value was 48.8 ± 8.2% and negative predictive value was 65.0 ± 7.3%. Inter-rater reliability, evaluated by Cohen’s kappa statistic, averaged 0.47 [95% CI 0.40–0.50]. Experts could not identify a pattern of urethrovesical movement characteristic of SUI on ultrasound.
KeywordsStress urinary incontinenceUltrasoundUrethrovesical movement
stress urinary incontinence
maximum urethral closure pressure