, Volume 87, Issue 2, pp 161-177,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Single-receiver single-channel multi-frequency GNSS integrity: outliers, slips, and ionospheric disturbances


In this contribution the integrity of single- receiver, single-channel, multi-frequency GNSS models is studied. The uniformly most powerful invariant test statistics for spikes and slips are derived and their detection capabilities are described by means of minimal detectable biases (MDBs). Analytical closed-form expressions of the phase-slip, code-outlier and ionospheric-disturbance MDBs are given, thus providing insight into the various factors that contribute to the detection capabilities of the various test statistics. This is also done for the phaseless and codeless cases, as well as for the case of a temporary loss-of-lock on all frequencies. The analytical analysis presented is supported by means of numerical results.