Original Article

Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 87, Issue 2, pp 161-177

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Single-receiver single-channel multi-frequency GNSS integrity: outliers, slips, and ionospheric disturbances

  • P. J. G. TeunissenAffiliated withGNSS Research Centre, Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University of TechnologyGeoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology Email author 
  • , P. F. de BakkerAffiliated withGeoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology


In this contribution the integrity of single- receiver, single-channel, multi-frequency GNSS models is studied. The uniformly most powerful invariant test statistics for spikes and slips are derived and their detection capabilities are described by means of minimal detectable biases (MDBs). Analytical closed-form expressions of the phase-slip, code-outlier and ionospheric-disturbance MDBs are given, thus providing insight into the various factors that contribute to the detection capabilities of the various test statistics. This is also done for the phaseless and codeless cases, as well as for the case of a temporary loss-of-lock on all frequencies. The analytical analysis presented is supported by means of numerical results.


Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) Single-receiver single-channel model Phase-slips and code-outliers Ionospheric disturbance Uniformly most powerful tests Minimal detectable bias (MDB)