Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 82, Issue 7, pp 389–399

Resolution of GPS carrier-phase ambiguities in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with daily observations

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00190-007-0187-4

Cite this article as:
Ge, M., Gendt, G., Rothacher, M. et al. J Geod (2008) 82: 389. doi:10.1007/s00190-007-0187-4


Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool in geodetic and geodynamic applications. Although its accuracy is almost comparable with network solutions, the east component of the PPP results is still to be improved by integer ambiguity fixing, which is, up to now, prevented by the presence of the uncalibrated phase delays (UPD) originating in the receivers and satellites. In this paper, it is shown that UPDs are rather stable in time and space, and can be estimated with high accuracy and reliability through a statistical analysis of the ambiguities estimated from a reference network. An approach is implemented to estimate the fractional parts of the single-difference (SD) UPDs between satellites in wide- and narrow-lane from a global reference network. By applying the obtained SD-UPDs as corrections to the SD-ambiguities at a single station, the corrected SD-ambiguities have a naturally integer feature and can therefore be fixed to integer values as usually done for the double-difference ones in the network mode. With data collected at 450 stations of the International GNSS Service (IGS) through days 106 to 119 in 2006, the efficiency of the presented ambiguity-fixing strategy is validated using IGS Final products. On average, more than 80% of the independent ambiguities could be fixed reliably, which leads to an improvement of about 27% in the repeatability and 30% in the agreement with the IGS weekly solutions for the east component of station coordinates, compared with the real-valued solutions.


GNSSPrecise Point Positioning (PPP)Uncalibrated phase delayInteger ambiguity resolutionGlobal network

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geodesy and Remote SensingGeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  2. 2.GNSS Research and Engineering CenterWuhan UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China