, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 255–268

A new approach in constructing orthogonal and nearly orthogonal arrays

  • Chang-Xing Ma
  • Kai-Tai Fang
  • Erkki Liski

DOI: 10.1007/s001840050049

Cite this article as:
Ma, C., Fang, K. & Liski, E. Metrika (2000) 50: 255. doi:10.1007/s001840050049


Orthogonal arrays have been constructed by a number of mathematical tools such as orthogonal Latin squares, Hadamard matrices, group theory and finite fields. Wang and Wu (1992) proposed the concept of a nearly orthogonal array and found a number of such arrays with high efficiency. In this paper we propose some criteria for non-orthogonality and two algorithms for the construction of orthogonal and nearly orthogonal arrays evincing higher efficiency than that obtained by Wang and Wu.

Key words:D-efficiencyexperimental designnearly orthogonal arraysorthogonal arraysthreshold accepting

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang-Xing Ma
    • 1
  • Kai-Tai Fang
    • 2
  • Erkki Liski
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Statistics, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China (e-mail:
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (e-mail:
  3. 3.Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, ChinaCN
  4. 4.Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Philosophy, University of Tampere, P.O. Box 607, 33101, Tampere, Finland (e-mail: