International Journal of Game Theory

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 325–329

Note on unawareness: Negative Introspection versus AU Introspection (and KU Introspection)


DOI: 10.1007/s00182-011-0287-5

Cite this article as:
Chen, YC., Ely, J.C. & Luo, X. Int J Game Theory (2012) 41: 325. doi:10.1007/s00182-011-0287-5


We show that under mild conditions, Negative Introspection equals both KU Introspection and AU Introspection for plausible unawareness in a standard state-space model à la Dekel et al. (Econometrica 66:159–173, 1998). If, moreover, the standard state-space model satisfies Non-Delusion and Monotonicity, then AU Introspection alone is equivalent to Negative Introspection. This study provides additional insight into Dekel et al.’s result that standard state-space models preclude sensible unawareness, in terms of how AU Introspection and KU Introspection clash with Plausibility.


Unawareness Negative Introspection KU Introspection AU Introspection Plausibility Standard state-space model 

JEL Classification


Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA