In this paper, a non-supervised technique for on-line paper characterisation is presented. The method uses self-organising maps (SOM) and texture analysis for clustering different kinds of paper according to their properties. A light-through technique is used to get pictures of paper. Then, effective texture features are extracted from greyscale images and the dimensionality of the feature data is reduced with SOM allowing visual analysis of measurements. The method makes it possible to implicitly extract important information about paper formation. The approach provides excellent results. A classification error below 1% was achieved for four quality classes when local binary pattern (LBP) texture features were used. The improvement to the previously used texture features in paper inspection is huge: the classification error was reduced by over 40 times. In addition to the excellent classification accuracy, the method also offers a self-intuitive user interface and a synthetic view of the inspected data.
Self-organising map Texture analysis Visual inspection Quality control Local binary pattern