Original Papers

Research in Engineering Design

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 229-241

First online:

Life cycle modeling for adaptive and variant design part 2: case study

  • Peder FitchAffiliated withDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington
  • , Joyce Smith CooperAffiliated withDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington Email author 

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Life cycle modeling for design (LCMD) facilitates the incorporation of life cycle modeling into product design by including consideration of uncertainty in a product’s final specifications. The methodology combines Life Cycle Assessment with probabilistic design methods in a way that reduces information needs. Part 1 of this article presents the basic LCMD methodology. Here, in Part 2, LCMD is used to evaluate material substitution opportunities to reduce resource consumption, reduce life cycle air emissions, and increase the recyclable mass for a Ford C-class sedan. In addition to further illustrating LCMD, the case study identifies vehicle design scenarios that offer modest improvements in environmental performance and related cost tradeoffs.


Design uncertainty Life Cycle Assessment Design for environment Adaptive design Automobile design