Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 377–393

Topology optimization of trusses by growing ground structure method

Research Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00158-008-0237-4

Cite this article as:
Hagishita, T. & Ohsaki, M. Struct Multidisc Optim (2009) 37: 377. doi:10.1007/s00158-008-0237-4


A new method called the growing ground structure method is proposed for truss topology optimization, which effectively expands or reduces the ground structure by iteratively adding or removing bars and nodes. The method uses five growth strategies, which are based on mechanical properties, to determine the bars and nodes to be added or removed. Hence, the method can optimize the initial ground structures such that the modified, or grown, ground structures can generate the optimal solution for the given set of nodes. The structural data of trusses are manipulated using C++ standard template library and the Boost Graph Library, which help alleviate the programming efforts for implementing the method. Three kinds of topology optimization problems are considered. The first problem is a compliance minimization problem with cross-sectional areas as variables. The second problem is a minimum compliance problem with the nodal coordinates also as variables. The third problem is a minimum volume problem with stress constraints under multiple load cases. Six numerical examples corresponding to these three problems are solved to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.


Truss Topology optimization Singular optimum Potential strain Growing ground structure C++ template library 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Architecture and Architectural EngineeringKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan