Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 261–269

Sizing design of truss structures using particle swarms

Research paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00158-003-0316-5

Cite this article as:
Schutte, J. & Groenwold, A. Struct Multidisc Optim (2003) 25: 261. doi:10.1007/s00158-003-0316-5


The optimal sizing design of truss structures is studied using the recently proposed particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA). The algorithm mimics the social behavior of birds. Individual birds in the flock exchange information about their position, velocity and fitness, and the behavior of the flock is then influenced to increase the probability of migration to regions of high fitness.

A simple approach is presented to accommodate the stress and displacement constraints in the initial stages of the swarm searches. Increased social pressure, at the cost of cognitive learning, is exerted on infeasible birds to increase their rate of migration to feasible regions. Numerical results are presented for a number of well-known test functions, with dimensionality of up to 21.


particle swarm optimization algorithmsizing designtruss structure

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa