Journal of Cryptology

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 23–44

A One-Time Stegosystem and Applications to Efficient Covert Communication


  • Aggelos Kiayias
    • Department of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of Connecticut
  • Yona Raekow
    • Fraunhofer Institute for Algorithms and Scientific Computing
  • Alexander Russell
    • Department of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of Connecticut
    • Department of Computer ScienceSam Houston State University

DOI: 10.1007/s00145-012-9135-4

Cite this article as:
Kiayias, A., Raekow, Y., Russell, A. et al. J Cryptol (2014) 27: 23. doi:10.1007/s00145-012-9135-4


We present the first information-theoretic steganographic protocol with an asymptotically optimal ratio of key length to message length that operates on arbitrary covertext distributions with constant min-entropy. Our results are also applicable to the computational setting: our stegosystem can be composed over a pseudorandom generator to send longer messages in a computationally secure fashion. In this respect our scheme offers a significant improvement in terms of the number of pseudorandom bits generated by the two parties in comparison to previous results known in the computational setting. Central to our approach for improving the overhead for general distributions is the use of combinatorial constructions that have been found to be useful in other contexts for derandomization: almost t-wise independent function families.

Key words

Information hidingSteganographyData hidingSteganalysisCovert communication

Copyright information

© International Association for Cryptologic Research 2012